This chapter assesses the degree to which the actual development of titular-Russian relations conforms to theoretical expectations. It summarizes the range of titular attempts to establish hegemony in their homelands, and the Russian reactions to the changing titular-Russian relations. The chapter deals with an examination of the theoretical implications that the findings have for studies of international conflict and the potential for conflict management. Titular nationalists were most successful in gaining political power early and implementing a hegemonic political action program in the Baltic States, Georgia, and Moldova. Factors beyond level of dependency and level of development were critical in explaining the variation in the successful implementation of an exclusionary nationalist agenda by titular nationalists. The degree to which "national consciousness" had become mass-based well before Soviet dissolution is critically important. In the late 1980s, nationalist elites used a variety of historical justifications to mobilize support for their separatist movements.