This chapter examines the changing nature of Russian-titular relations through the three main stages of imperial conquest and colonization, welfare colonialism, and decolonization. It highlights the times and places in which the subnational identities of Central Asia have impinged on the unfolding Russian-titular relationship through the periods of colonialism and decolonization. Indigenous uprisings against local rulers were more frequent than were attempts by Central Asians to resist the Russians. The imperialistic relationship established between Russians and Central Asians during the tsarist period continued during the Soviet era, albeit in modified form. Central Asians lived primarily in rural areas where they were employed in agriculture and in the "non-productive" sectors of the economy. Russians continued to be over-represented in the urban/industrial sectors of Central Asia's economy and indigenes continued to be concentrated in agriculture. Rapid indigenous social mobilization-particularly the rapid rise in educational attainment-fueled an equally rapid rise in Central Asians' expectations for a better life.