Swaziland is one of the smallest countries in Africa, in terms of both area and population. It is a landlocked kingdom, situated between the Republic of South Africa and Mozambique. Although small, Swaziland is a country of great geographical and climatological contrast, a fact that affects deeply all agricultural, resource, and human development of the country. Swaziland can be readily seen to possess that combination of topography, soils, and climate that have afforded it a wide range of agricultural and forestry potential, much of which remains to be exploited. Swaziland is extremely well endowed with water. Its major rivers generally flow from west to east, traversing all several geographical belts on their passage to the Indian Ocean. Minerals have been vital to the political economy of Swaziland throughout much of its recorded history. In practically all of the literature describing Swaziland's economy, particularly its agricultural sector, "economic dualism" dominates the theoretical framework.