Exporters are penalised
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The imperial rulers in London laid down rules appertaining to exports from the colonies. To the intended detriment of foreigners some merchandise could only be sold to the motherland. 'Voluntary' restraints cover many countries and many products. The pottery from Taiwan, footwear from Romania, music centres from South Korea and cutlery from various Asian countries. A Japanese economist has demonstrated that a similar disparity prevails when Japanese cars are sold in foreign markets where Tokyo operates export restraints. Political export bans are formulated by governments which in turn have to compel the companies under the jurisdiction to comply with them. The parent companies of multi are frequently also called upon to ensure that the boycotts are obeyed by the foreign subsidiaries and affiliates. Political export prohibitions for largely non-military reasons can be all-embracing or may explicitly exclude some products, e.g. pharmaceuticals.