ABSTRACT

The people of Muktlnath admit that they envy the Kag people for their superior fields. Migration takes place mainly during the long winter months, from October to March. The wealthier, worldlier, younger and more modern crowd, bound for sweater and used clothes dealing in India, leaves first. The migrants return to the villages and are welcomed with round after round of drinks. Locally made loans are repaid and the newly-imported goods are displayed, delivered, sold, given as gifts, and stashed away. Labor exchanges usually are organized by women, and the members of the lakchap groups are most frequently but not always women. There are a few non-chumlkwa blacksmith and tailor families who have immigrated to Chumik, probably from the middle hills of Nepal. In chumlk non-cultivated land, including forests, pastures, springs, streams, man-made water canals and wasteland, belonged traditionally to individual villages and groups of villages.