According to the idigenous model of society, every Chumikwa belongs to one of four hereditary strata. Highest in rank are the aristocrats, known as "Ponpo," descendents of the chiefs who once ruled in Chumik. The hereditary strata in Chumlk clearly resemble those of traditional Tibet, often referred to in the literature as hereditary classes and described with terminology usually applied to feudal Europe. The primary meaning of the terms tolna and tolmp refers to the offspring produced by a dzomo and a bull. In addition there are archaic terms, tinggar and chamba. or chamba and bevi according to another informant, referring to either a male or a female whose Illegitimate status is three or four generations deep. The most apparent social manifestations of a person's hereditary status are: where he or she sits at ritual functions, and whether honorific forms of speech and the title "Srewo" or "Sremo" are used in addressing him.