This chapter focuses on vanguard organizations which base themselves on “nation” as a mass population. Nation-vanguards are separate from nationalistic militia groups (such as the German Freikorps) in organizational structure (party-based versus military hierarchy) and in aims, with vanguard groups believing the specific national population holds universal importance to humanity. The chapter notes two unique aspects of nation-vanguardism as compared to other vanguard groups. First, nation-vanguards are the most “idealistic”; while noting some material traits (such as geography), this type of organization emphasizes the foundational roles of culture and language (as well as myth) in the creation of the epistemologically-privileged population. Second, the specificity of the nation as the epistemologically-privileged population leads to a greater diversity of policies and aims among nation-vanguards compared to those based on race or class. Additionally, the chapter notes the importance of a “corso ricorso” view of History, influenced by Vico, Sorel, and Spengler. The chapter explores various such groups – such as the Falangists and some Arab nationalists – with particular emphasis on Italian Fascism (and the ideas of Benito Mussolini and Giovanni Gentile).