Vanguard organizations based upon race are the focus of this chapter. The first section presents the areas of difference between nation-based and race-based forms of vanguardism, as well as areas of overlap. In analyzing race-vanguardism, the chapter notes the similarities of class-categorization to race-categorization in their mutual basis on materialism, with the latter focusing on biological struggle as the main dynamic of history. Race-based groups base their “science” upon the notion of biological struggle, with the aim of creating a universal, “higher” species of humanity. The party itself justifies its role as the advanced wing of the race through “elitist egalitarianism”: the struggle of the “best” operates also within the race, where differences are a matter of degree, but members of the epistemologically-privileged race are equal insofar as their superiority to other races is in kind. Nazism in various countries, as well as the Romanian Iron Guard, are investigated. This chapter notes the thoughts of Adolf Hitler, Alfred Rosenberg, and William Pierce (among others), and notes the forms of definition for “Aryan” or “white” populations within a broadly Darwinian framework used by race-vanguards.