ABSTRACT

Business research supports that for organizations to achieve long-term success, three employee behaviors are required. In researching the drivers of worker motivation, a clear distinction was made between employees performing assigned job-oriented tasks and those engaging in voluntary collaborative or helping behaviors. Discretionary helping behaviors as referenced in Organ’s research are those that are not a part of the employee’s formal job expectations or terms of employment. Courtesy is the display of polite behavior marked by respect for others or showing appropriate social etiquettes. Conscientiousness is defined as an individual’s propensity to be trustworthy, reliable, diligent, goal-focused, and dedicated to adhering to the rules. Sportsmanship is defined as exhibiting just and generous behavior of others, treating others fairly and equitably, and tolerating difficulties or inconveniences without protest. Organizational justice refers to an employee’s perception of fairness in the organization related to all aspects of workplace behavior.