This chapter presents artificial intelligence (AI) problem is taken to be that of making a machine behave in ways that would be called intelligent if a human were so behaving. The 1900s was a time when AI was given a face and began moving into the mainstream of science and society. Imagine the ability to utilize AI to detect heart failure from a single heartbeat with 100% accuracy. The eventual adoption and use of such AI-enabled applications allow clinicians to make a more significant societal impact with patients benefiting from early and more efficient diagnoses. In 1958, John McCarthy developed a programming language known as Lisp. It went on to become the most popular programming language used in AI research. In 2017 the AI Now Institute was launched at New York University to research and study the social implications of AI. Its work focuses on four core domains including rights and liberties, bias and inclusion, and safety and critical infrastructure.