Chapter 2 addresses the assumption that radical nationalist music is something unique to radical nationalist movements. It focuses on the Irish Home Rule movement, which argued for constitutional methods and devolved Irish government as an alternative to violent separatism. It demonstrates that, for constitutional nationalists, music was a vital aspect of the radical rhetoric in which they steeped their otherwise moderate efforts. Looking at how the Home Rule movement split between those loyal to its leader Charles Stewart Parnell and those opposed, it analyses the ways in which different branches of nationalism used music to attack one another, claiming rightful ownership of existing anthems and rejecting that of their opponents. Thus, it establishes that music does not always unify movements for national independence.?