The Irish cultural revival did not end with the creation of an Irish state. This chapter analyses the ways in which the concept of cultural revival played out in debates about music in Ireland after independence. Through new composers, new organisations and yet more new international influences, traditional Irish music reinvented itself. The overarching argument in this chapter is that traditional music did not thrive because of some ingrained appeal to a musical Irish soul. Instead, its popularity was due entirely to the level of modernisation and innovation to which traditional music was subjected. Through the structures of American popular culture, in particular, traditional music found its place in the pop music repertoire through ‘folk’ groups with guitars and banjos, such as The Dubliners.