This chapter provides an overview of the global retail grocery and related wholesale industry. When combined with the general decline in traditional food store sales, the purchasing and distribution efficiencies of large food retailers makes price competition difficult for smaller companies. In an attempt to capture both online and offline food retail, the delivery platform, Alibaba, has rolled out Hema, a chain of hybrid retail grocery stores in China. The allocation of space to products in a retail environment is incredibly important for both retailers and suppliers. To quickly adapt to the changing retail landscape, grocery retailers are adding micro-fulfillment systems. With the rise of the middle class in developing countries, markets are shifting from fragmented, local outlets—such as village markets acting as wholesalers and retailers—to larger, centralized wholesale markets supplying retail operations. The future of food retailing promises to be a shifting landscape.