This chapter critically analyses factors shaping Period 4.0. The nature, sources, and outcomes of drivers are evaluated against extant, dominant theoretical approaches in rural studies. Emphasis is placed on opportunities, challenges, and risks within the period. This is complemented by a reflection on Period 4.0, be it a chimera or fashion in terms that aim at using new and novel terminology. ‘Countryside 4.0’ may not be a term that is easy to define, in view of differences and territorial specificities across rural areas. This also seeks to determine the new and unique influences engendered by novel Period 4.0 policy initiatives. In terms of theoretical approaches, the authors examine this new terminology against existing, traditional imperatives of rural development as part of endogenous and neo-endogenous theories of local and regional growth.