This chapter focuses on the role of human resources in rural areas in Period 4.0. Local rural labour markets face new challenges in the digital era, including new job opportunities that are to be created in the countryside. Work conditions are also likely to change, into new ways of working and new types of employment relationships that are created, such as telecommuting, freelance work, crowdsourcing, and the sharing of jobs. The nature and impacts of the aforementioned developments are explored, with the specific focus of attention being on the possible impacts on education systems, the availability of educational facilities, the development and use of modern forms of education, both in initial and further education and training. The analysis also covers the effects on demographic, social and educational rural structures, as well as the ‘rural way of life’ of affected communities. The above-mentioned dynamics and effects are illustrated through a variety of examples across a select few EU countries.