Chapter 1 provides a review of the history rehabilitation in corrections. In doing so, the chapter highlights major points in history that have impacted the correctional treatment policies of today. Those points include the Age of Enlightenment, which brought about reformations that still exist today. The refuge movement is also reviewed, particularly with a focus on juveniles. Finally, the “get tough” movement and the current “what works” movement are emphasized. The chapter concludes with a discussion of evidence-based decision-making within the correctional system.