This chapter provides a cursory outline of the modern biological theory of selfish genes and examines Karl Marx’s and F. Engels’s views of human nature. It analyses human nature from the perspective of the materialistic conception of history and describes a succinct analysis of Social Darwinism. The importance that upper-class individuals attach to their position in society indicates that social class reshuffling may lead to changes in attitudes and that more collaborative attitudes are likely to develop in a cooperative system. The claim that workers are sure to acquire the right to self-manage their firms at some point in time is doubtless in line with the rationale behind Social Darwinism. Inasmuch as the rationale behind planning is substituting centrally made choices for the choices made by individuals, there is no way of justifying it from the perspective of Social Darwinism.