Transportation modes are essential components of transport systems since they are the means by which mobility is supported. Transport modes are the means by which passengers and freight achieve mobility. They are mobile transport assets and fall into three basic types: land (road, rail and pipelines), water (shipping), and air. Because of their operational characteristics, freight transportation modes have different capacities and efficiency levels. Transportation modes have different cost functions according to the serviced distance. The selection of a transportation mode is the outcome of several factors, cost being important, but also level of service, frequency and the general value of time attributed to the cargo being transported. Air transportation is now overwhelmingly dominant in transcontinental and intercontinental travel and has become more competitive for shorter trips in many regional markets. The usage of containers shows the complementarity between freight transportation modes by offering a higher fluidity to movements and a standardization of loads.