Transport policy tries to make decisions concerning the allocation of transport resources, while transport planning is their effective implementation. Governments have many instruments at their disposal to carry out transport policy. Some are direct, such as public ownership, but the majority are indirect, such as safety standards. Controls over monopoly power are still in place, and even in the most liberal of economies there is still strong evidence of public policy intervention. Transport policy and planning requires a governance, which is associated with an effective usage of existing resources as well as a better allocation of new resources. Safety and security issues concern both transportation modes and terminals that can be either a target for terrorism, a vector to conduct illegal activities or even a form of warfare. Transportation systems, due to their speed and ubiquity, act as a vector in the diffusion of pandemics.