The value to the client may start with carbon mapping but can evolve into a more complex occupier or tenant management tool. The supply chain across all London projects is examined to see what efficiencies of scale can be identified to achieve low carbon/low cost outcomes. The objective would be to ensure the long-term carbon and energy efficiency of the estate and to contribute to reducing overheating, future running costs, carbon emissions and potentially insurance premiums, and improving health and wellbeing, fuel efficiency and future asset value. The graph confirms some basic intuitive trends: investing in large terminal facilities is only worthwhile from a carbon perspective when the onward transport route costs are low and long distances are to be travelled. Reducing distances to terminals by locating them in catchment areas with high numbers of users is critical to reducing the embodied and also the operational carbon emissions.