Commercial buildings are often refurbished or demolished before their structure and fabric fails. Designing buildings to be more flexible and adaptable should allow them to retain their value for longer by avoiding functional obsolescence. Alternatively, buildings can be consciously designed for a short life and with the ability to be disassembled so that modules can be redeployed in new buildings or so that the materials can be separated and reclaimed for further use. Either way, designing buildings that are easier to refit, refurbish or dismantle helps to reduce the demand for raw materials and to reduce the amount of waste arising. Buildings such as laboratories become obsolete quickly due to rapid changes in technology or new research techniques, whereas high-quality housing can remain and useful for longer. The shrines are built using elaborate joinery techniques with joints that are flexible but with enough strength to last without the use of nails, screws or adhesives.