By the end of the nineteenth century, not only had many weavers survived competition from British cloth, but they were also investing in new tools and processes, such as the fly-shuttle slay, frame-mounted looms, dobby, Jacquard, drop-box, and warping machines. Productivity in handlooms registered extraordinary growth in the first half of the twentieth century. To some extent, the growth derived from an institutional change, a shift away from part-time and low-valued work towards full-time, specialized, and higher-valued work. Technological change reinforced the shift. Where did the tools and the techniques come from? Why were they adopted? Who adopted them? Chapter 5 answers these questions.