Chapter 1 outlines the nature of the disputes between the Americans and the Europeans over territorial possessions in the Americas as well as political differences and monopolistic trade practices in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries that ignited nationalist/exclusionary sentiments among American policymakers. It explores the constellation of events in Europe that triggered the proclamation of the Monroe Doctrine: the phenomenon of revolution after the Bourbons were reinstated to the throne in France following the collapse of Napoleon’s authority and its bearing on the revolts of the Spanish American colonies; the invasion of Spain by France to restore Ferdinand VII to the throne; the threat of the Holy Alliance to Spanish America following this feat; the management of international relations by the great powers, defined as the Concert of Europe, as well as British and American diplomatic manoeuvres on the question of recognition of the independence of Spain’s former colonies. The events in Europe evolved in the context of the accumulation of American power through continental expansion, economic growth and development and the enhancement of its military capacity.