This chapter is grounded in the recognition that typical family structures, childrearing responsibilities, and models of learning vary across and within cultures. Thus, in many families around the world, parents are not the only or main literacy teachers for young children. Accordingly, this chapter highlights research showing how extended family and community members, older siblings, grandparents, and other elders are involved in children’s language and literacy development. The examples feature both naturalistic studies of literacy learning at home and research on programs that have included literacy mediators such as grandparents. The chapter concludes with suggestions for programming.