Enhancing the resilience of urban systems and services has been an important pathway for building urban resilience. Water and sanitation systems, the energy and power sector, transport and communications infrastructure and health systems have all been used to increase the resilience of urban centres to shocks and stresses. However, there has been a disproportionate emphasis on installation of hard infrastructure, physical systems and technology solutions for resilience while the capacity of institutions, organisations and individuals has been relatively overlooked. This is why, to bring a comprehensive vision of urban resilience to life, it is crucial that focus shifts towards increasing the ability of those running urban systems to be aware of climate impacts, ensuring that they have the authority to respond appropriately and giving them the means to take relevant action to ameliorate climate risk in towns and cities.