The international field of arts, health and well-being encompasses research, policy and practice on many art forms including music, visual arts, dance, drama and creative writing. This chapter discusses the development of the international field of arts, health and well-being. It offers a critical perspective on key issues affecting research, policy and practice, beginning with a discussion of current challenges and their basis in historical and more recent developments. The development of art therapies has influenced the framing of broader field of arts, health and well-being in several ways. While internal tensions and challenges have shaped arts, health and well-being as a field, the growth of field has gained impetus from external forces and from polices that increasingly emphasise asset-based approaches to health and care. The uneven development of arts, health and well-being as a field may reflect cultural differences, including differences in professional roles and resources of institutions, networks and social actors in countries that have actively supported developments.