Chapter 15 maps how a manager on each of the three levels of psychological maturity affects the organisation. If the manager is immature, there is a great risk that the group will also construct immature collective defences. On the other hand, if the manager is psychologically mature he can affect the productivity and trust of the organisation in a significant way.

The chapter provides specific case illustrations of managers’ behaviour – both immature and mature.

The final part of the chapter discusses how far one can go into the psychology of employees and concludes that managers cannot function as therapists for their employees, but their management may well have therapeutic qualities.