This chapter deals with items written in the context of some sort of application, whether academic or job-related. In all cases, the basic claim is that the person described is the best one for the position. Although the components and support are very different from research articles, the basic idea of argument structure still holds. Entrance exam essays are often evaluated as much on the strength of the argument as the content, and should show how the program is particularly suitable for the applicant. Job applications should be written keeping in mind the goals and criteria of the potential employer, citing specific evidence rather than generalities. Even resumes should be tailored to the purpose and try to make the strongest argument possible, highlighting items that will be important to that employer. Reference letters include certain common elements, and those receiving them try to read between the lines to see what is not written, which is often more important than what is written.