The European Union (EU) has European neighbours to the east and non-European neighbours to the south. The European presence in the five countries of the region is limited: Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, and Turkmenistan. Since the publication of the Global Strategy and the start of the debate on resilience, European subsidies have continued to flow, by the way, including to authoritarian states such as Egypt, simply on the basis of the previous policy. The foreign policies of countries like Saudi Arabia and Turkey directly threaten European interests. The most successful example of European security policy for the south probably is the commitment towards Mali. The EU can cooperate with any country on one or more dimensions of equality, as long as it doesn’t create new inequalities and does not itself become party to human rights violations.