The concluding part of the book aims to understand what can be learnt from the United States’ involvement in Afghanistan over a thirty-five-year period. It argues that Afghanistan became central to America’s national security perceived interests due to its relevance as a ‘bastion against communism’ in the Cold War context or in the post-9/11 context as a highly significant country in which the phenomenon of terrorism had taken a major foothold. The author contends that US policymakers consistently invoked the notion that America has had an exceptional, brave and moral part to play in Afghanistan’s affairs. In this way, Washington discursively constructed Afghanistan’s relevance in order to achieve its perceived national interest whilst confidently proclaiming its benevolent role.