This chapter explores the requirements of child-initiated and adult-led pedagogy, moving from balancing to synergising the two pedagogies, as both are essential in Early years education and care. The pedagogy of play has highlighted that children must have several different opportunities of and for play. Educators see their approaches to teaching and play as sitting on a continuum. Free play within the pedagogy of play is when children are free to choose how to play and with who and what. Child-initiated activity has many characteristics in common with free play as it is decided upon by the child and remains under their control. In simple terms, adult-led are those activities and opportunities that are organised, initiated, planned, and led by the adult. There are other terms that are used interchangeably with adult led, for example, adult guided, adult chosen, adult directed, teacher directed, adult inspired, and adult managed.