This chapter explores some of the more common forms of child neglect and discusses the important aspects of the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act. It explains what constitutes medical neglect and the effects on children when they observe violence being committed on other family members. Child neglect is the negligent treatment or maltreatment of a child by a parent or by a caretaker under circumstances, indicating harm or threatened harm to the child’s health or welfare. Emotional neglect consists of acts or omissions that are judged by community standards and professional expertise to be psychologically damaging to the child. Children suffering from non-organic failure to thrive exhibit emaciation, paleness, weakness with little subcutaneous fat, and decreased muscle mass. Emotional abuse may be considered as non-physical behavior or attitude that controls, intimidates, subjugates, demeans, punishes, or isolates another person by using degradation, humiliation, or fear.