The division of governmental and economic power between the most important collectivities of citizens formed the precondition for politics in Sweden. The economic crisis which in the early 1980s was holding the industrialized nations in its grip brought the issues to the fore for the social sciences as well as for politics. In the Marxian perspective, the conflicts of interest expressed in and mediated by the roles and rights of individuals and collectivities in the sphere of production are seen as an enduring base for social and political cleavages. Departing from Weber’s critique of Marx, during the postwar period many social scientists have seen class as gradually losing its importance as a basis for cleavages and as a driving force for change in modern societies. The bourgeois governments proposed cutbacks in ingrained social benefits. The chapter also presents an overview of the key concepts discussed in this book.