In the early 1970s the Council for National Academic Awards (CNAA) moved from constructing a system to redrawing boundaries. In establishing major new configurations of subjects, courses and areas of professional preparation it was caught between pressures to expand and to retract boundaries. One of the most noteworthy outcomes of the James Committee Report of 1972 on teacher education was, in fact, the central involvement of the CNAA with the validation of courses of teacher education, with the new Diploma of Higher Education, and with the diversification of the colleges of education. The first two years of education were to be the academic years, and there were proposals for these two years also to be seen as discrete and eligible for a Diploma of Higher Education. The developments in teacher education were inseparable from those relating to the Diploma of Higher Education and to the diversification of the colleges.