This chapter discusses some social events which led to engagement of the ulama in the Constitutional Revolution. The Constitutional Revolution of Iran, as a process of social movement for political change, began in 1905, won a formal victory in the summer of 1906, and continued to protect constitutionalism until 1909. The traditional role of the ulama, as the leaders of civil society, was not changed, but the content changed radically through their participation in the constitutional movement. The Constitutional Revolution arrived at a new phase. The traditional structure of power changed and the state became 'an organization which controlled the principal concentrated means of coercion within the population'. Tabriz became one of the most important centers of internal challenge against the counter-revolutionary forces. Though under great pressure from the army, the revolutionaries continued to keep the fire of the revolution and constitutionalism alive.