This chapter discusses the reconstruction of Iran according to the Pahlavis' model of modernization, its effect on the social groups, in particular the urban occupational groups, the ulama, and the intellectuals. At the end of 1925 the Constitutional Assembly voted to support the creation of the new Pahlavi dynasty in Iran. The new dynasty was recognized by both Britain and the Soviet Union, who were both interested in establishing a powerful government in Iran—but for different motives. Reza Shah was determined to secularize Iranian politics and release the state from the influence of religious authority. Intending to modernize the social institutions and challenge the very basis of the religious authority of the ulama, he wanted to bring women into the new public life of the cities. Reza Shah was a nationalist who wanted Iran to be independent from the great powers and become a strong and secular state. But his nationalism was based on a dictatorial rulership.