This chapter elaborates two types of curriculum theory: 'rational' or scientific theory and 'naturalistic' theory and introduces other sub-types of theories. Curriculum theory must take account of subject matter, the learner, the teacher, the milieux and the justifications for bringing these into a relationship. 'Rational' curriculum theory has as its basis a very simple paradigm or essential exemplification consisting of three propositions which can be simply stated as: define objectives, create the necessary learning situations and evaluate the achievement of the objectives. Naturalistic curriculum theory, does not seek only to determine what subjects should be taught and then justify the selection by reference to a theory of knowledge; nor what desirable objectives a curriculum should attempt to achieve nor what are the best conditions for teaching and learning. Hermeneutic and aesthetic curriculum theories are less concerned with action, doing and change than with seeing things anew. It is this contemplative character that holds the hermeneutic to the aesthetic.