This introduction presents an overview of the key concepts discussed in the subsequent chapters of this book. The book discusses the evolution of the Hong Kong identity and focuses on the developmental role played by 'crises' in the territory's identity development. It demonstrates that Hong Kong is not solely an economic city but has contained a strong political element and that the development of illiberal institutions in conjunction with democratic ideals was a natural progression in Hong Kong's socio-political evolution. The book draws together the interaction of state and nation development in conjunction with the socio-economic modernisation of Hong Kong in order to demonstrate the existence of a Hong Kong identity. It examines the main schools of civil society discourse. The book highlights the fact that civil society has been conceptualised according to both liberal and non-liberal forms.