Chapter 2 overviews historical notions of health and place, covering progress in thinking during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries including: Enlightenment ideals, the Sanitary Movement, Germ Theory, and the recognition of the importance of place in the emergence and promotion of public health. It also touches on the progression of ideas into the twentieth century where the focus of doctors, architects, planners and engineers moved to scientific and hygienic conditions. This chapter furthermore surveys the health-related rationales for architects’ designs, exploring the common influences on the functional design and appearance of therapeutic buildings and landscapes.