Chapter 3 examines the development of public parks in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries when social, industrial and economic changes in towns and cities began to substantively impact the public’s health. It was a time when social and sanitary reformers looked to open spaces as ‘urban lungs’ to ameliorate pollution and become restorative environments for the working population. Parks were additionally viewed as didactic spaces where the lower classes could engage in socially acceptable recreation. Over time the parks movement gained momentum, supported by landscape designers, social reformers, architects and town planners. Ornamental gardens, walking and riding paths, statues, woods and plantations, playing fields, playgrounds, gymnasia and memorials were all components of public park landscapes.