Chapter 8 focuses on tuberculosis sanatoria, places designed for the treatment of those with pulmonary tuberculosis. Following the discovery of the tubercle bacillus in 1882, and with growing public awareness of its contagiousness, there was increasing demand for facilities to care for sufferers. As the disease chiefly affected the lungs, the open-air regimen was widely advocated and sanatorium buildings and their grounds played an instrumental role in this treatment. From their beginnings in Germany, such buildings featured balconies, large operable windows and hygienic surfaces, often in a pavilion style layout. While across the Atlantic in the United States of America, a different architectural solution was proposed, one based on cottage style accommodation. This chapter demonstrates how buildings designed to enable the open-air treatment functioned, with sanatoria described and analysed in light of their perceived health benefits.