The study of historical developments in criminal justice can be of great value to a future criminal justice manager. Cardinal Richelieu introduced a merit-based criminal justice bureaucracy to Europe while reforming the French judiciary in the service of King Louis XIII. Criminal justice officials do not make pins, but the abstract concepts of the division of labor behind pin-making do apply to criminal justice occupations: task specialization, work coordination and integration, and the application of labor-saving technologies. Municipal policing is a relatively new concept when viewed against the expanse of human history. It was a social reform as much as it was a practical response to the serious crime problems of that city. Roscoe Pound was a legal reformer who influenced the manner in which the American judiciary looked at the law itself. He used empirical scientific methods to study crime problems, and he wrote a history of the legal profession in 1953.