The terms "evaluation," "appraisal," and "assessment" are often used interchangeably in the management literature and in criminal justice workplaces. Assessment is the process which is employed to determine the performance of individuals, of policies, of facilities, and entire organizations. An appraisal is the score, rating, or ranking given an individual or organization. Evaluation is the managerial activity which uses the assessment process to produce documentation of the performance of individuals and work groups, producing an evaluation. The frequency of performance appraisals is up to the manager. They can be as frequent as monthly or quarterly, but more often they are done annually. Management by Objectives provides a useful, forward-looking, and personally enriching approach to individual performance evaluation. Evaluation and assessment activities identify areas where change is needed to produce a better-performing individual or organization, and later in the change process, to measure the success of the implementation of the intended changes.