Staffing involves hiring agency employees, then fostering their career development, protecting their employment rights, disciplining them, and promoting them. Most criminal justice staffing actions are covered by civil service rules, but there are some exceptions. Civil service tests were administered to all of the nominees to ensure that their intelligence, knowledge, and general capacity were sufficient for promotion. Civil service protections had an unintended consequence for criminal justice employment: the rise of public service unions. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 made discrimination based on race, ethnicity, national origin, religion, sex, and political preference unlawful in public accommodation. A new civil rights issue was raised and hotly debated in the 1980s, that of comparable worth—equal pay for work of equal value. Annual leave is provided to all full-time employees, usually based on the length of time employed by the agency.