This introduction presents an overview of the key concepts discussed in the subsequent chapters of this book. The book explores the relationship between the Russian philosopher, Mikhail Bakhtin, and contemporary dialogical psychotherapy. It deals with some of the difficulties in using Bakhtinian ideas in psychotherapy. The book discusses dialogism, Bakhtin's most significant concept for psychotherapy, drawing attention to the many shades of meanings that dialogism has acquired and relating these to the philosophical context in which Bakhtin developed his ideas. It also presents a more detailed overview of Girard's ideas including his critique of the Freudian Oedipus complex and Freud's account of narcissism. The book describes the concept of the Dialogical Self and discusses two contrasting dialogical approaches to psychotherapy, including some of their limitations. It provides Bakhtin and discusses some of the difficulties encountered in using his ideas in psychotherapy, given the highly contested interpretations of his work in the wider field of Bakhtin scholarship.