In Sigmund Freud's theoretical writings, there is a stipulated tension between narcissism and object relations such that the more an individual is narcissistic, the less object-related that individual can be. Heinz Kohut's new emphasis is important to understand in order to appreciate his thoughts about analyzability. It is Kohut's contention that analysts tended to follow the altruistic value system of Western societies and see all aspects of narcissism as negative. Throughout his writings on narcissism, Kohut talks about what he regards as the typical type of countertransference reactions the analyst may experience. Merton Gill reminds us that Freud's views of transference and when to interpret transference are clearly quite different than his formulations. Although Gill seems to be only adding to Freud's thoughts when he talks about free association, when he talks about Freud's idea of the analyst maintaining evenly suspended attention, he is more critical.