In this chapter, the author introduces her readers to developments in psychoanalysis with a masterly survey. She uses her thorough understanding of Sigmund Freud's theories to show how Melanie Klein, who brought about many of the developments, is extending his ideas, not deviating from them, as some of Klein's detracters declare. The author points out that Freud often showed indecisiveness about his theories, and this is particularly true of his postulation of the life and death instincts. Other instances of the different estimates put by Melanie Klein and analysts of opposing views on some of Freud's work would be his papers on 'Economic aspects of masochism' and on 'Negation'. The points in which her work has extended beyond Freud's, and has led to findings which diverge from and controvert some of his, are plainly brought into the foreground and openly presented.