Cognitive–behavioural therapy (CBT) is the predominant school of modern evidence-based psychological therapy. Both Stoicism and CBT place central emphasis upon the role of cognition in determining the cause and cure of emotional disturbance. Professor Keith Dobson offers the following account of its “philosophical bases”, that is, the common assumptions shared by variations of cognitive–behavioural therapy. These are: cognitive activity affects behaviour; cognitive activity may be monitored and altered; and desired behavior change may be affected through cognitive change. Dobson includes a number of other approaches that combine cognitive interventions, which modify the clients’ thinking or internal dialogue, with elements of earlier behaviour therapy. Emotional disturbance is the result of mindlessly becoming absorbed in external events, being overly attached to sensory pleasure, wealth, and the praise of others, and overly anxious about pain, poverty, and criticism. Moreover, the philosophical core of Stoicism is consistent with the theory and practice of CBT.