Students can deepen their understanding of contested topics in science, history or arts by arguing in ways similar to professional scientists and academics. Argumentation helps students attend to contrasting ideas and discover the value of evidence. It makes reasoning public, for all to learn. It allows students to refine ideas with others, so they learn how scientists work together to establish or refute claims. The pedagogy of argumentation prepares students for a world where the consequences of science, technology and public policy – such as climate change, genetic engineering, artificial intelligence and sustainable energy – affect every person and are publicly debated. Managing a session of productive argumentation can be demanding. Most students and teachers are used to questions with known answers, so students can show individual mastery of a science idea or topic. By contrast, argumentation builds knowledge through a process of proposing, critiquing, defending and reconciling ideas by cycles of turn-taking.