This introduction presents an overview of the key concepts discussed in the subsequent chapters of this book. The book argues that, in education policy across the globe, the aspects of young children’s literacy practices are insufficiently understood. It aims to understand what young children, both individually and collectively, do to solve the problems posed by the experience of being taught to read and write in school. The book also argues that this kind of work is important in educational contexts where adults are concerned with ensuring children acquire literacies that will benefit them in their lives. It describes a case study of a class of 5- to 6-year-old children – Amber Class – being taught to read and write in a London primary school in the academic year 2010–2011. The book shows that children reproduce and shares peer culture values, attitudes and beliefs about how best to practice literacy in the classroom in social interactions.